Molecular markers are DNA sequences whose inheritance pattern can be established. Molecular markers can be used to assist establishment of pure breeding lines and check contamination of breeding. Tissue Culture Techniques and their Applications in Plant Breeding: The culturing of plant cells or tissues in synthetic medium and their development into mature plants has immense potential for plant improvement. Tissue culture is another application of biotechnology to produce a large number of plants with an explant. This approach is done by establishing linkage between molecular marker and traits to be selected. Molecular marker aided breeding strategy involves the potentiality of molecular markers in plant breeding, particularly helps in marker assisted selection procedure which speeds up the whole breeding process. There are few major avenues which were opened by plant tissue culture can be listed below: The technique of micro-propagation or regeneration of plantlets from any tissue has been successfully achieved in case of wheat, rice, sugarcane, maize, barley and many other crop plants. Markers have been used in the breeding of desirable disease resistance property against virus and fungal pathogen. But this technique is specially useful for propagation of medicinal plants which grow slowly and cannot be bred in the conventional methods. Survey of rice germplasm using RAPD shows linkage between the presence of specific marker and QTL for novel character. In reality, current biotechnology is the result of the application of microorganisms selected and manipulated for specific purposes. Instead of several back-crossing and then selection which requires lots of time, molecular markers facilitate selection of individuals with more of the recurrent genome at each generation. Distant hybridization programme sometimes eliminates the chromosomes of one parent, thus the culture of hybrid embryo allows to develop the haploid plant. Mutants of any nature can be detected easily as allelic interactions are non-existent. Modern biotechnology stands in contrast to older forms of “biotechnology,” which emerged thousands of years ago, when humans began to domesticate plants and animals. Do eukaryotic cells have restriction endonucleases? What are the three important components of biodiversity? The first molecular and cellular tools of modern biotechnology emerged in the 1960s and ’70s. Term Paper on Organic Plant Breeding | Crops | Plant Breeding | Botany, Pre-Breeding & Traditional Breeding: Comparison | Methods | Plant Breeding, 4 Main Steps of Hybrid Seed Production | Plant Breeding. Modern biotechnology relies heavily on techniques that use ... A classic example of the application of biotechnology is the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), also called transgenics . The greatest usefulness of another culture lies in the rapid production of haploid plants which are of great value in plant breeding and genetics. The DNA introduced into majority of the cells is lost with cell division. The non-viable gene-combinations causing sterility are promptly exposed, so selection is automatic. The haploid plantlet production is aimed through another culture or pollen culture, where the embryoids developed from this culture (haploid) may be treated with colchicine to get diploid homozygous plants which may be used in breeding programme. In vitro gene transfer technique allows transferring desirable genes across taxonomic boundaries into plant from other plants, animals, microbes or any artificial, synthetic or chimeric gene also. Another culture avoids natural loss of inbred lines due to excessive inbreeding depression. base for evaluating the application of modern biotechnology in food production. In Brassica, the success has been achieved using this technique, i.e., CMS line with ‘Ogura’ cytoplasm, herbicide (atrazine) resistant trait has been transferred to cultivated variety. Nowadays the definition of biotechnology is even wider and covers the research and development of biological processes on a genetic and molecular level. From the observation of Larkin and Scowcroft (1981) it is obvious that natural variability in tissues, i.e., somaclonal variation can be utilised at selection level. Later the term biotechnology was invented meaning industrial application of living cells and combining basic sciences with engineering. Somatic hybrid production by protoplast culture-fusion technique, use of different molecular biological techniques and alien gene incorporation into the genetic background of cultivated species thus become obvious. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? The most extensive programme has been in progress in the family Brassicaceae where the different traits like drought tolerance from Eruca, pathogen resistance from Sinapis, cytoplasmic male sterility or CMS from Diplo-taxis have been transferred in cultivated Brassica. RFLP microsatellite markers are selected as useful marker for these predictions. (ii) Fusion of normal protoplast from one parent and protoplast with non-viable nuclei from other parent. Clonal propagation method used for some heterozygous plants, especially the ornamentals, helps a lot in breeding programme. These organisms had their genetic code altered (usually by combining with genes from other organisms), in order to eliminate defects and develop new properties. (iv) They are distributed frequently throughout the genome. In this article we will discuss about the biotechnology in plant breeding. is is also useful in food processing (fermentation and enzyme involving processes). Moreover the vegetative propagating plants, such as banana which multiply by rhizome and one plant can yield about 10 plants per year, through micro-propagation as many as 2,00,000 plant- lets can be obtained. In this process the whole breeding procedure can be conducted in laboratory not waiting for the phenotypic expression in field, e.g., resistance property to plant pathogen can be evaluated in the absence of disease. Prediction of Hybrid Performance (Heterosis): Genetic distance between possible parents can be estimated by employing molecular markers. Maintenance and multiplication of self-incompatible inbred line (male sterile line) is possible by tissue culture methods very easily. 7.1). Equally this technique is applicable to tree plants like teak, eucalyptus, etc. RFLP markers from closely related species are good markers for constructing gene map. Alcohol production is one of the most basic applications of industrial biotechnology. In China more than 100 rice varieties developed using the technique to give an increased yield. Among several crop plants, rice has been the most wanted target plant. In the conventional plant breeding programme, the development of a new variety or hybrid takes about five to twelve years, starting from inbred production and then hybridization and selection of F 1 hybrids. Somaclonal variation can be generated through tissue culture technique and the selected clone can be produced in mass scale. The directed desirable gene transfer from one organism to another and the subsequent stable integration and expression of foreign gene into the genome is referred as genetic transformation. Gene Transfer Techniques in Plant Breeding: In plant breeding, techniques involving gene transfer through sexual and vegetative propagation are well established. Share Your PPT File. Modern Biotechnology is helpful in enhancing taste, yield, shell life. Marker assisted selection accelerates the back crossing and selection for desired trait which help in earlier release of improved variety. Some of the unique features of molecular markers are: (ii) They show co-dominant inheritance which helps in distinguishing homozygous from heterozygous.
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